Top Programming Languages For Students to Learn in 2021

It can be challenging to discover where to start when learning to program if you’re new to the field. Many programming languages are widely used, each with a unique set of intricacies and quirks.

You’ll learn which programming language best fits your personality, interests, and career goals when you start your career as a software developer.

It is critical these days to learn how to develop computer programs to succeed in today’s environment. Nearly all businesses today rely on computers. 

There are computers everywhere, whether it’s an aircraft’s autopilot or the speedometer on your bike. An organization’s growth is dependent on computers. 

The pens and paper of yesteryear are gone. Instead, the modern era relies on computers to store and retrieve information.

Developers and programmers are growing at a faster rate than ever before. 

Several new programming languages are gaining popularity suitable for programmers of various skill levels (beginners, intermediates, and specialists) and a range of applications (web applications, mobile applications, games, distributed systems, etc.). 

“Which programming language should I learn?” is a question every newbie’s faces.

Our list below includes a list of programming languages that are the most popular and in-demand for a range of typical use cases, including web development, mobile development, and game development.

Here’s what we need to know before we can answer this…

What are Programming Languages?

Beginners need to understand what a programming language is before they learn which programming language to learn. 

A programming language is a tool we use to create instructions for computers, as explained in a blog post about programming languages.

Programming languages assist us in converting 1s and 0s into symbols that humans can comprehend. 

Humans and computers communicate through programmers, and programming languages serve as the tools they use to do so.

What are the Levels of Programming?

Several programming languages exist, each with its own unique purpose and way of creating instructions. A programming language’s abstraction level varies and is categorized into two categories:

  • High-Level Language
  • Low-Level Language

High-Level Language

With a high-level programming language, it is possible to develop platform-independent programs. A high-level language is a language similar to human language and is easily understood; however, due consideration needs to be given to the logic of the problem. 

Converting a high-level language to a low-level one requires the use of a compiler. Furthermore, high-level languages have the following advantages.

  • Learning and maintaining a high-level language is easy.
  • It is a machine-independent language, so it is portable.

Low-Level Language

User interfaces in low-level languages do not interact with hardware; they are expressed in binary form, corresponding to machine instructions. There are two types of low-level languages: machine-level and assembly-level.

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What are the Types of Programming?

The following are some types of programming languages:

Procedural Programming Languages

A procedural language is expressed as a series of instructions. A user specifies that he/she wants to accomplish something, and then sequentially, he or she carries out those instructions. 

Programming languages with procedure-based syntax are suitable for general-purpose applications.

A program is carefully organized and phased according to this paradigm, which is derived from structured programming.

The program is organized into variables, functions, statements, and conditional statements. Users can develop code in several programming languages using various editors and integrated development environments (IDEs). 

Microsoft Visual Studio, Adobe Dreamweaver, Eclipse, and Eclipse are all examples of procedural programming languages. Likewise, BASIC, C, Java, PASCAL, and FORTRAN are all examples of procedural programming languages.

Functional Programming Languages

The foundation of functional programming is mathematical equations, and it optimizes symbolic computation and list processing. Thus, when dealing with large data sets, these languages are beneficial.

Programming in a functional language uses a declarative paradigm to build programs by applying and composing functions. As a result, the language places more emphasis on defining expressions and declaring than on executing statements. 

A core component of functional programming is lambda calculus, which performs calculations with conditional statements and recursion. 

However, it does not support iterative statements such as loops or conditional statements such as if-else. Functional programming languages include Haskell, SML, Scala, F#, ML, and Scheme.

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Object-Oriented Programming Language

Object-oriented programming languages, also known as procedural languages, are widely used and are built around the concept of “objects” that can contain data and code. 

You use many programs in these languages every day due to their remarkable flexibility. Furthermore, their static nature leaves them susceptible to more faults.

The object-oriented nature of this paradigm allows fields to store data and procedures to store code. The advantages of OOPs include abstraction, encapsulation, polymorphism, inheritance, classes, and objects. 

A fundamental principle is an encapsulation, which is key to code security. In addition, polymorphism helps spread existing implementations without requiring significant coding changes, and inheritance encourages code reuse. 

Multiparadigm programming languages primarily consist of object-oriented languages like Java, C++, C#, Python, and Javascript.

Scripting Programming Languages

An automated task execution environment is built using scripting languages. 

Scripting is suitable for automating workflow and eliminating time-consuming tasks, but designing and testing it can be difficult. A scripting language is an interpreted programming language that does not require compiling. 

A run-time environment was used when these instructions were written. Online applications, system management, games, and multimedia are often developed with these languages. 

A plugin or extension for a currently installed program is developed using it. There are several popular scripting languages, including:

  • Javascript, PHP, and PERL are server-side scripting languages.
  • Jquery, Javascript, AJAX, and other client-side scripting languages
  • Shell, Perl, and Python are some of the tools used in system administration
  • BASH is the Linux interface
  • Ruby is used for web development

Logic Programming

A logic-based programming paradigm is a method of creating software. Logic programs contain logical phrases that convey facts and rules concerning a specific problem domain. 

Logical programming is very flexible but lacks a way to specify computational principles.

The dominant programming paradigm is based on formal logic. Language does not tell a computer what to do but instead sets constraints on what it is permitted to do. 

Datalog, ASAP (Answer Set Programming), and PROLOG are three prominent logic programming languages in which rules are expressed as classes.

What Programming Language Should You Learn?

You now have some context for choosing a programming language. When making this choice, you have a few options. 

You should consider your objective when selecting a programming language. You should think about what is in demand or popular in your industry when selecting what programming language to use.

Top Programming Languages For Students to Learn

When you consider a career in coding, you should begin by learning mainstream languages. IT job listings for entry-level developers continually call for these developers, as they are in high demand.

Here is a list of some of the most popular programming languages to help you better understand their applications. 

Python

There is no doubt that Python is at the top of the list. Most people consider it to be the best first language to learn. Python is a powerful web application development language that is easy to use, fast to learn, and straightforward to deploy. 

Programming Languages

YouTube, Instagram, Pinterest, and SurveyMonkey are all developed using Python. Python is well-supported by libraries and has a large developer community. Python is the perfect language for a beginner to get started with programming. 

You should learn Python if you’re looking for a better job! In addition, python is the primary backend stack used by many startups, so full-stack Python engineers have a vast market opportunity.

Learning Python is necessary if you’re planning on working in data science or artificial intelligence. However, as an alternative, the language can also be used in other areas of development, for instance, web development.

Pros of Python:

  • Build prototypes and test out ideas faster with this tool
  • The community is ever-growing and open-source
  • Supports a variety of platforms and systems
  • Easy to learn and use.
  • Thanks to OOP, it’s easy to create and use classes and objects
  • Support for extensive libraries
  • Code readability is emphasized
  • Scales well even for complex applications

Cons of Python:

  • Incompatible with mobile computing
  • Interpreted programming languages are slower
  • There are some issues with the database access layer
  • The problem with threading is GIL (Global Interpreter Lock).

C/C++

The most common programming language is C/C++. Operating systems, file systems, and so on are almost all written in C/C++. Thus, mastering system C/C++ will prepare you for a career in system programming. 

Programming Languages

Competition programmers also use C++ extensively for its speed and stability. In addition, C++ also includes a feature called STL – Standard Template Library. 

STL is a collection of pre-compiled libraries for various data structures, arithmetic operations, and algorithms. A popular language choice among high-frequency traders due to its library support and speed.

Pros of C/C++:

  • It is very portable [C]
  • Object-oriented language with blocks and modules. The programs are easier to debug, test, and maintain [C]
  • [C/C++] allows you to write programs that are more efficient and easier to understand.
  • Library of rich functions [C++]
  • The language runs close to the hardware, providing a low-level abstraction [in C/C++]
  • Handle exceptions and overload functions [C++]
  • Games, GUI software, and real-time simulations [C++] are all examples of diverse application domains
  • You can work with [C++] with a wide variety of compilers and libraries
  • Access blocked or hidden objects by other programming languages [C]
  • Programming in C++ is faster than most languages [C/C++]
  • It provides the fundamental knowledge necessary to understand more complex programming languages [C/C++]
  • Multi-device, multi-platform app development language of choice [C++]

Cons of C/C++:

  • High-level constructs must be manually created [C]
  • There is no garbage collection or dynamic memory allocation [C/C++]
  • There is no run-time checking [C/C++]
  • Type checking is not strictly enforced [C]
  • A difficult first choice for learning programming [C/C++]
  • Problems with buffer overflow and memory corruption [C/C++]
  • Minimal library of standard functions [C]
  • Often complex syntax [in C/C++]
  • Does not support the program namespace [C]
  • Cannot solve real-world programming problems [C]
  • Less efficient than other OOP-based programming languages [C++]

Go programming language

Golang is a computer language developed by Google. The multithreading capabilities of Golang make it ideal for enterprises that are heavily reliant on distributed systems. 

Programming Languages

Furthermore, Silicon Valley startups often use Go. 

However, Indian startups and businesses have not yet adopted it. As such, Golang is a valuable skill to learn for those who wish to join a Silicon Valley startup that specializes in core systems.

Pros of Go:

  • A standard library that provides a range of primitive type functions
  • It is ideal for creating single-page applications (SPAs).
  • Using smart documentation
  • Since it is machine code compiled, it is swift
  • Google-backed
  • Static typing makes it more secure
  • Learning easier with a cleaner syntax

Cons of Golang:

  • Incapable of being versatile
  • Library without GUI
  • Support for underprivileged libraries
  • Complex programs are less efficient without a virtual machine
  • Explicit interfaces

Swift

iOS applications are written in Swift. Apple’s iOS-based gadgets are becoming increasingly popular.

Programming Languages

The iPhone, for example, has amassed a large market share and poses a significant threat to Android. Swift can thus be learned by anyone interested in serving this community.

Pros of Swift

  • Easily add new features.
  • Code that is readable and cleanly written is encouraged
  • Highly readable syntax reminiscent of English
  • Compatible with Objective-C
  • Server-side Swift can be integrated with any technology
  • The use of this tool for both front-end and back-end development enhances code sharing and makes development faster
  • Faster than other popular programming languages, such as Objective-C and Python
  • Managing memory automatically prevents memory leaks
  • Apple-backed
  • Increased scalability makes it easier to add new features and/or hire more developers.

Cons of Swift:

  • Support and resources are limited in the community
  • As a relatively new developer, it can be a little unstable
  • Legacy projects cannot be used; they can only be used for iOS7 or later apps

C#

C# is a general-purpose, object-oriented programming language derived from C. C# is part of Microsoft’s .NET development platform for creating Windows apps. 

Programming Languages

It is an excellent language to learn because it offers numerous opportunities. In addition, since Microsoft is the leader of enterprise software, the .NET framework is widely used by many companies. 

If you can write C#, numerous high-paying opportunities are waiting for you. The language is not as popular as some other programming languages, but it can be. C# developers are renowned for their remarkable stability and their ability to work in a wide variety of application types.

Java

Another primary programming language used in large enterprises is Java, which has been around for decades.

The complexity of Java puts programmers in demand even though it is an older language. 

Programming Languages

The Java programming language is not the easiest to learn, but it offers many job opportunities.

Typically, Java is used by companies to develop their web applications. Java is well-known for its stability, which is why many large organizations use it. You should learn Java if you’re seeking a development-related role at a large company. 

Android applications are often developed with Java. There are billions of Android users today, which means that almost every business needs an Android application. 

Google has developed an outstanding Java-based Android programming framework called Android Studio, which presents an excellent opportunity for Java developers.

R

R is a programming language widely used for data analysis and machine learning. Machine Learning algorithms are easy to construct in R due to their architecture and built-in libraries. 

Additionally, R is used to compute and generate graphics in statistical analysis. As a result, R has been embraced by businesses. Those interested in joining a large organization’s “Analytics” team should study R.

JavaScript

JavaScript is the most popular and beginner-friendly programming language among developers. JavaScript’s versatility has led many developers to begin studying it today. 

Many websites, server applications, iOS applications, and other mobile applications are developed with JavaScript. JavaScript is a full-stack programming language, which can be used for both server-side and front-end web development. 

You can use this language for any aspect of a project, so it is an excellent place to learn to program.

Its ease of learning makes JavaScript quite popular as well. The web uses it because of its speed, as it can be processed instantly in a client-side browser. In addition, JavaScript integrates nicely with other programming languages, allowing it to be used in a wide variety of applications.

JavaScript has very few downsides, yet no language is perfect. The primary difficulty with JavaScript is that each browser interprets it differently, making it challenging to build code that runs flawlessly across all browser versions.

There are numerous opportunities for JavaScript developers. According to Career Foundry, 72% of businesses are actively recruiting JavaScript engineers.

Ruby

The Ruby scripting language is widely used in web development. Numerous companies use Ruby, including Airbnb, GitHub, and Shopify, making it convenient to learn and use. 

The Ruby community is significant, and its members are helpful, so a wealth of free information is readily available.

Even though Ruby is particularly popular, one disadvantage of learning Ruby is its fluctuating popularity. On the other hand, Ruby is used by many large organizations, so jobs are unlikely to disappear anytime soon.

If you’re proficient with the Ruby on Rails web application framework, your average income is higher than many other programming languages. 

Ruby engineers earn a good living even at entry-level, making it a very profitable language to learn.

PHP

PHP is not fading, as some may believe. There are over 80% of websites on the internet that uses PHP as a server-side programming language.

Furthermore, PHP is used to create desktop programs and command-line programs. Thus, this is an essential language for anyone who wants to build websites and is relatively easy to learn.

PHP is used by so many websites worldwide that there is always a need for additional developers. Addition theOn the contrary, there PHP programming language is an excellent introduction to programming.

Elm

Elm has a Javascript compiler and is a functional programming language. Therefore, front-end developers will appreciate this framework. In addition, web browsers can execute Elm since it is compiled into Javascript.

The use of Elm is strictly related to the client-side of a web application since it is a domain-specific language. However, many UI/UX designers love Elm owing to its numerous libraries, such as Elm/HTML, which enables programmers to write HTML/CSS in Elm.

It is unlikely that this is your first language. You will likely need to learn more languages to attract employers, but possessing this skill dramatically increases your chances of becoming a highly successful front-end developer.

Kotlin

Kotlin is an open-source, general-purpose programming language designed by JetBrains for the Java Virtual Machine. Kotlin enables the use of functional programming languages by being compatible with Java.

Kotlin is not as well known as Java, but many programmers who use it believe it to be superior. In addition, Kotlin is used extensively in Google applications since most of them are written in the language. 

Kotlin is also easier to learn than Java and eliminates 40% of the lines of code required to do the same thing in Java.

Does learning Kotlin make sense? The answer is yes. The language was introduced in 2011. Emerging languages tend to have a less competitive job market, as is often the case. 

Because fewer experienced programmers are attracted to it, it is also more in demand. Furthermore, you can expect a high average pay that exceeds the industry standard.

Rust

The Rust programming language is a multi-paradigm language that is optimized for speed and security. Rust is used by a large number of leading technology companies for these reasons.

The memory safety of Rust, like that of C++, makes it suitable for low-level development. 

Rust has been very popular among programmers, and there has been a dramatic increase in demand for Rust programmers in recent years.

Rust developers have the unfortunate limitation that opportunities are significantly fewer than those available to C++ or Java developers; however, those that exist are typically more cutting edge and exciting.

Matlab

MATLAB is a statistical analysis software package utilized in a wide variety of industries for data analysis. MATLAB is also used frequently in the area of Computer Vision.

You are unlikely to be familiar with Matlab, but it can be a worthwhile language if you are interested in science or engineering. A programming language called Matlab is used for the development of machine learning and deep learning applications.

Matlab is a reasonably straightforward language; despite the complexity of the machine and deep learning, jobsJobs for Matlab programmers are not plentiful, but those that are available pay well.

Matlab’s creator, MathWorks, has an abundance of information on the language.

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